Gender differences in instrumental music practice

Gender differences in instrumental music practice

Are there gender differences in instrumental music practice?

Hallam, et al. (2016) have recently investigated the amount of instrumental practice and practice strategies of boys and girls. Research on instrumental practice has tended to focus on amount of time spent practicing and quality of practice (deliberate practice) (Ericsson, 2008).

Gender differences in instrumental music practice

Gender differences in instrumental music practice

Continue reading

Musical aspirations: The development of expertise

Musical aspirations: The development of expertise

Hallam, et al. (2016) have recently released results of a large-scale study of adolescent musicians, researching links between musical motivation, aspirations, and the development of expertise.

Musical Aspirations

Musical Aspirations: The development of Expertise

Human Motivation

Continue reading

HAPHAZARD AND STRATEGIC INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC PRACTICE

Instrumental music practice requires an ongoing cycle of planning and self-reflection. Self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 1989) proposes a model which highlights important factors influencing learning. There are three phases in the SRL model which are viewed an ongoing cycle in the learning process:

  1. forethought phase;
  2. performance phase; and
  3. self-reflection phase.
Haphazard or strategic instrumental practice

Haphazard or strategic instrumental practice

Continue reading

Acquiring high levels of expertise in instrumental music: Deliberate practice

DELIBERATE practice: What predicts level of expertise attained, quality of performance, and future musical aspirations in young instrumental players? 

Deliberate Practice

The expertise and deliberate practice paradigm (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993) proposes that the amount of deliberate practice one has completed will determine the level of success and quality of performance. The research of Ericsson and colleagues is supported, although explanations for the motivation to complete the 10,000 hours practice required to reach expert level, is not explained very well.

10,000 hours of deliberate practice may be required. What motivates an individual to do that much practice, particularly when practice can be a lonesome and perhaps unexciting aspect of learning to play a musical instrument, is an area which is under explored in the expertise paradigm.

expertise deliberate practice

What predicts level of expertise attained, quality of performance, and future musical aspirations in young instrumental players?

Continue reading

Advanced musicians and instrumental practice self-regulation

Advanced musicians and instrumental practice self-regulation

 

Araujo (2015) explored the self-regulated practice behaviours of advanced musicians and in doing so, developed a new self-report questionnaire to assess instrumental practice self-regulation.

There is evidence to suggest that instrumentalists of varying levels of experience and expertise employ different metacognitive and self-regulation strategies in their practice regimes. Metacognition is characterised by knowledge of strategies and personal resources to achieve a desired goal. Self-Regulation in musicians is the ability to manage and plan their practising, performance, and evaluation. Self-regulated behaviours include setting goals, metacognitive thinking, planning and time management, environmental control, self-evaluation, help-seeking, and appropriate causal attributions.

Advanced musicians and instrumental practice self-regulation

Advanced musicians and practice self-regulation Image: Randen Pedersen – Flickr

Continue reading

The 15-minute practice rule

The 15-minute practice rule

Burwell and Shipton (2013) provide an illuminating insight into the practice strategies of university-level music students. The project was an action-research model to develop the self-regulatory skills of instrumental music students through the use of generic practice strategies and tools for time-management and self-evaluation.

15-minute practice rule

Image: Phil Roeder – Flickr

Continue reading

The one-to-one teaching model: Benefits and pitfalls

The one-to-one teaching model: Benefits and pitfalls

One-to-one teaching model: Benefits and pitfalls

Carey and Grant (Carey & Grant, 2014) investigate students’ and teachers’ perceptions of one-to-one teaching model in conservatoire settings. The one-to-one model is the typical model for instrumental music tuition which has a long history in the learning and development of instrumental musicians. It is considered the standard for instrumental learning and as such, is seldom challenged as a mode of training for musicians.

instrumental music teaching

One-to-one teaching model: Benefits and pitfalls

Continue reading

Empty Practice Syndrome

Empty Practice Syndrome

“Empty Practice”

Students may interpret practice differently to teachers. Students may report practising large amounts during a week, however, there seems to be little progress. These students may be engaged in “empty practice syndrome”.  Empty practice is practise which lacks goals, self-regulation strategies, deliberate practice strategies, and focussed attention. In contrast, formal practice has all of these features and is linked to musical achievement (McCormick & McPherson, 2003; McPherson & McCormick, 2006; Sloboda, et al., 1996).

Continue reading

What motivates teachers?

What motivates teachers

In studies by Watt and Richardson (2007, 2008) that authors investigated the initial motivation of individual intending to pursue a career in teaching. The framework for the study was based on expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992).

Continue reading